Friday, March 13, 2020

How to Prepare Aqua Regia Acid Solution

How to Prepare Aqua Regia Acid Solution Aqua regia is an extremely corrosive mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid, used as an etchant, for some analytical chemistry procedures, and to refine gold. Aqua regia dissolves gold, platinum, and palladium, but not the other noble metals. Heres what you need to know to prepare aqua regia and use it safely.​​ Fast Facts: Aqua Regia Aqua regia is a corrosive acid mixture made by combining nitric acid and hydrochloric acid.The usual ratio of acids is 3 parts hydrochloric acid to 1 part nitric acid.When mixing the acids, it is important to add the nitric acid to the hydrochloric acid and not the other way around.Aqua regia is used to dissolve gold, platinum, and palladium.The acid mixture is unstable, so it is usually prepared in small amounts and used immediately. Reaction to Make Aqua Regia Here is what happens when nitric acid and hydrochloric acid are mixed: HNO3  (aq) 3HCl (aq) → NOCl (g) 2H2O (l) Cl2  (g) Over time, nitrosyl chloride (NOCl) will decompose into chlorine gas and nitric oxide (NO). Nitric acid auto-oxidizes into nitrogen dioxide (NO2): 2NOCl (g) → 2NO (g) Cl2  (g) 2NO (g) O2  (g) → 2NO2(g) Nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and aqua regia are strong acids. Chlorine (Cl2), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are toxic. Aqua Regia Safety Aqua regia preparation involves mixing strong acids. The reaction produces heat and evolves poisonous vapors, so its important to follow safety protocols when making and using this solution: Make and use aqua regia solution inside a fume hood, with the sash down as much as is practical to contain the vapors and protect against injury in case of splashing or glassware breakage.Prepare the minimum volume needed for your application.Make sure your glassware is clean. In particular, you dont want any organic contaminants because they can produce a vigorous or violent reaction. Avoid using any glassware that may be contaminated with a chemical containing a C-H bond. Do not use the finished solution on any material containing an organic.Wear safety goggles.Wear a lab coat.Wear gloves.If you get drops of any of the strong acids on your skin, wipe them off immediately and rinse with lots of water. If you spill acid on clothing, remove it immediately. In the  case of inhalation, move immediately to fresh air. Use the eyewash and seek emergency medical attention in case of eye contact. In the  case of ingestion, rinse the mouth with water and do not induce vomiting.Neutralize any spills with sodium bicarbonate or similar compound. Remember, its best to neutralize a  strong acid with a weak base and not a strong base. Prepare Aqua Regia Solution The usual molar ratio between concentrated  hydrochloric acid and concentrated  nitric acid is HCl:HNO3 of 3:1. Keep in mind, concentrated HCl is about 35%, while concentrated HNO3 is about 65%, so the volume ratio is usually 4 parts concentrated hydrochloric acid to 1 part concentrated nitric acid. A typical total final volume for most applications is only 10 milliliters. Its unusual to mix up a large volume of aqua regia.Add the nitric acid to the hydrochloric acid. Do not add hydrochloric to nitric!  The resulting solution with be a fuming red or yellow liquid. It will smell strongly of chlorine (although your fume hood should protect you from this).Dispose of leftover aqua regia by pouring it over a large amount of ice. This mixture may be neutralized with a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution or 10% sodium hydroxide. The neutralized solution may then be safely poured down the drain. The exception is used solution that contains heavy metals. A heavy metal-contaminated sol ution needs to be disposed of according to your local regulations. Once you have prepared aqua regia, it should be used when its fresh. Keep the solution in a cool location. Do not store the solution for an extended length of time because it becomes unstable. Never store stoppered aqua regia because pressure build-up could break the container. Another potent acid solution is called chemical piranha. If aqua regia isnt suitable for your needs, piranha solution may be what you need.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

Debate Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Debate Paper - Essay Example The certificate must bear the signature of a sole incorporator, whose main objective is to establish the corporation. The Articles generally specify the name of the business, the chosen capital stock structure, the objective of the corporation, and the formal location of the headquarters and agent(s) of the corporation. After all that, the sole incorporator should formalize the appointment of the initial company directors by signing a consent document. Corporations such as Food Mart Stores are normally established to advance the business interests of the shareholders and cushion them against any liability. As such Smith owes a duty to the company’s stakeholders: the investors, directors, employees, and Stone Hill customers. Nonetheless, he is confronted with a delicate situation that could see the company make more profits by opening a bigger store farther away for the neighborhood at the expense of the locals. Different ethical theories manifest in this case study with regard to the impending decision on whether or not to close the store. Firstly, utilitarian ethical principle focuses on implementing ethical decisions that would maximize the good or value within the society while ensuring that the end result harms as few individuals as possible (Shaw, 2010). In this case, two issues prop up in the analysis of the best utilitarian action that Smith should take: on the one hand, the geriatrics who cannot carry heavy loads over long distances on foot make up about 10 percent of the population. Moreover, the average income of the lower-end segment in the neighborhood population depending on the Food Mart Store is $15,000, a figure that is lower than that of the city residents. On the other hand, Food Mart Stores and Smith face a gloom future if no action is taken to expand the store for stocking of a wide range of goods. With a gross income of a paltry 2%, the corporation’s operations could grind to a halt if it heeded the cry of the local population advocating for the retaining of the status quo, or worse still, engage in a costly renovation exercise whose returns on investment would be too little to imagine. Moreover, the future of Smith at the helm of the company hangs on the balance as the level of profits generated by the corporation continues to decline. Having done adequate research on the positive prospects of opening a larger store stocked with a variety of goods, it is ethical of Smith to press for the closure of the two smaller stores in order to pave way for the establishment of a bigger one that would guarantee all the stakeholders better outcomes. In essence, the new store will provide low prices on goods for patrons; and ensure higher profitability and continued existence to the benefit of all the stakeholders. A utilitarian-driven action by Smith would definitely cause suffering to the old residents of Stone Hill, however their suffering would be insignificant because they are a paltry10 percent of the populatio n. The poorer residents have reasonable incomes (of $15,000) which would enable them to adjust if a new store was established a few miles away from the neighborhood. Secondly, a rights ethical principle comes to fore in this dilemma. It is premised upon the notion that all stakeholders in a company have rights which

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Discovering What Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics Is All About

Discovering What Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics Is All AboutTheories in science deal with hypotheses, data and theories, not so much with Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics. The researchers of Quantum Physics do not have to submit their research papers to journals, they publish their ideas in scientific conferences. This has resulted in some reduction in the popularity of Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics but there is no doubt that it has greatly increased the popularity of Quantum Physics as a whole.The increasing number of students who study these topics in universities shows a huge interest in Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics. Quantum Physics research papers are easy to write and can be read by anyone without the need for a special language to be used. The topic itself is wide ranging and encompasses a lot of research into the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The research paper subjects are extremely varied and at times there are no exact terms, which can be used.There are three main topics that researchers might consider when they write a Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics, and they are Quantum Theory, Quantum Mechanics and the role of Quantum Information. There are some research papers that can address all three topics but most prefer to focus on just one or two. These topics encompass various different ideas and methods of science, each of which would be impossible to explain in a single article. However, it is important to highlight that each of these three areas of Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics has its own specific contribution to the broader scope of Quantum Physics, and each has its own impact on all of the other topics.For example, Quantum Mechanics research paper will discuss a general idea concerning the origin of the universe and its effect on our life, whereas a Quantum Theory research paper will focus on a specific research on the wave structure of matter, whilst Quantum Information research paper wo uld explain how some information of a quantum experiment has been created. Understanding these areas of research can be quite difficult, and it may be necessary to learn to put all the concepts together before trying to express them.A theory of Quantum Mechanics can help to explain the origins of our universe. The information that Quantum Mechanics provides is extremely complex and would take several articles to fully explain. However, if one was to combine the information with the theories of General Relativity, Quantum Entanglement and Hawking Radiation then a detailed explanation of the very origin of the universe would become possible.An increasing number of Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics have investigated the role of entanglement in the creation of some quantum entanglement. This entanglement has been thought to have an impact on the causes of the formation of atoms, but if that was the case, there would have to be an infinite number of atoms to form. The actual numbers are not infinite, and at most there are about four hundred billion. If one can understand what role entanglement plays in quantum physics, then a clearer picture can be drawn of the effects that it has had on the origins of the universe and how it affects life and society.These three areas of Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics have been considered to be more difficult to understand than the other two topics, but there are still many people who do not know of them, and it is due to this ignorance that there is so much interest in Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics. Anyone who wishes to gain knowledge of Quantum Physics should seek out the different topics of Quantum Physics Research Paper Topics to make sense of all the results of the field.

Fundamentals of Communication Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Fundamentals of Communication - Essay Example His self concept is bolstered by the amount of success that he attains over a period of time and by the kind of appreciation that the people hold for him in essence. It makes him realize that he is doing something right and hence should be hailed by all and sundry. There is a dire need on his part that the people around him get his message and thus deliver their appreciation back to him. It would raise the bar that surrounds his environments as well as makes him feel elated on most of the occasions. One of the concepts that come about within this discussion center on the premise of bringing in his self identity in close contact with what he aspires to achieve, backed up with the motivational levels that shall make him feel successful at the end of the day. An individual might showcase a number of self identities and concepts that keep on changing as and when the need so arises. What is really required is a vision to set things right within the personality of the individual under cons ideration and thus find the one (self identity/concept) that closely matches with his profile and then go about doing the basics right towards the people at large and the society without any problems whatsoever. The self concept discussion is observable because many different representations are showcased every now and so often by the individual under consideration. This would mean that he is doing his best to tell everyone what kind of successes lie in store for him if he is being his real self and telling to the world about his strengths without any issues. The need here is to contemplate the fact that the self concept will remain detectable without any problems coming to the fore. It would also mean that he is being true to his own individual personality and not representing someone who he is not. If the same happens, his self concept and self identity domains would lose track and hence a totally new personality would emerge on the horizon.

Friday, February 7, 2020

Research Paper And You - Research Paper And You - You Are A Slave

Research Paper And You - Research Paper And You - You Are A SlaveYou will never be able to escape the fact that some articles are very specific and only seem to be written for a short period of time. There are even cases of articles being well researched but written as if they were examples of research paper slavery in America and Escape and Survival.It is a far cry from the research paper you would write, not for a short period of time but for a year or more. It's just too much pressure. That's why writing research papers seems like a far too good of an idea.The same is true of research papers written in the topics that I will be discussing below. They could have been published somewhere else, in the same category but in a way that make it sound better and in more detail than is necessary.In my research paper I will have to cover several topics that no one really wants to talk about. We need to know how the government treats our people. Our society is corrupt and we have to break fr ee.Some say we need the new world order and a new world where all nations play nice. I don't see any world out there that I can live in as I did when I was growing up. It is a cruel, miserable, cold place where nothing that needs to be done ever happens and this is the way things are.The great thing is that there is so much to be done. We have to form societies where everyone plays by the same rules and this is where we should start.So, to learn more about this research paper I wrote and maybe make the topic more interesting for you Iam going to give you some details about the topic. I don't want you to be bored and I think that I've given you enough information to have the gist of the topic. Please remember that I am an author and I don't have a PhD in Psychology.

Thursday, February 6, 2020

The Upside to College Essay Examples Talking about the Community

The Upside to College Essay Examples Talking about the Community Can have some issues with transferring credits, based on the school you're transferring to. As you don't wish to cater to people's biases, you likewise don't need to diminish your odds of getting into college. All is dependent upon how you use the time when you aren't in class. Since you may see, going to a community college is a fantastic idea for so many factors. The best method to spot errors is by getting somebody else to read your work. It all starts with the proper topic that simultaneously shows your capacity to write well while painting an image of who you are in an easy and authentic fashion. In reality, I'd been born into this sort of situation. Various things to various folks, since the situation demanded. College Essay Examples Talking about the Community Explained As you know what it should say, it's simple to trick yourself into believing the essay says something it doesn't. Sit down, consider the story you wish to write. The author starts with a rather comprehensive story of an event or description of an individual or place. The very first sentence is a rather general, bland statement. Reading and answering the prompt may look a bit obvious, but it's frequently the obvious that folks ignore. Ultimately, the detail of true speech makes the scene pop. By learning how to take things apart and critique, you will also learn to compose the statements better. Your own personal statement isn't a diary entry or reality show. Carrie takes a risk within her essay. However, you don't wish to devote the whole essay referring to your mother. Stephen's essay is rather effective. The second passage is a lot more detailed. Bridget's essay is quite strong, but there continue to be a couple little things that could be made better. A brief sentence is utilised to make the emotional resolution of the admission essay. The insight he's gained from it. Instead, you must reference the strengths of your house culture. Volunteering at the church lets me fulfill the requirements of people who may have no other place to go. Before you register, read our guide on a number of the hazards of worldwide volunteer trips and the way to understand if it's the proper option for you. There are a total of nine schools in the region and the population is quite diverse. And a college admissions committee isn't your therapist. Throughout my childhood, I was lucky enough to have the ability to learn several points of views from my parents due to their exclusive backgrounds, causing a fascinating upbringing that I believe Barnard students possess too. Nonetheless, the community residents aren't prepared to reveal their spiritual involvement on account of the modernism and informal methods for living that disregard spiritual facets. The Hidden Treasure of College Essay Examples Talking about the Community Possibly a philosophical text really elucidates your existing paradigm. Don't forget to make abstract claims concrete, or so the reader knows just what you mean. The essay does not have any grammatical errors, and a few of the short, punchy phrases reveal a high degree of rhetorical sophistication. It is easily one of the most difficult parts of the college app lication process. College Essay Examples Talking about the Community Secrets That No One Else Knows About Colleges are not searching for perfect individuals. Community colleges provide similar if not the exact same opportunities to students without causing debt that can't be afforded. Students may also schedule courses around work and individual obligations. Various students are opting to attend community college for the initial two decades instead of a four-year university. AdmitSee has the biggest database of successful college application files to help you get through the admission season. These questions should inform your complete college application procedure. Choosing where to go to college is an amazingly important choice. Moreover, University of Michigan's research program, one of the very best in the usa, will permit me to make discoveries and contributions as an undergraduate student.

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

A Review of Human Development Research Paper Topics

A Review of Human Development Research Paper Topics Activities When it has to do with suitable activities, variety is fundamental! Our term paper writing service makes it possible for customers to select the writer they wish to work with based on their abilities and assignment requirements. General topics don't get the job done very well since they can't be covered adequately within the range of a single paper. When students consider getting academic writing assistance from a writing service, it's understandable there could possibly be concerns about plagiarism. It's utilised to measure and compare the degree of Human development, achieved by means of a nation. If you choose day care, picking provision which has a very low turnover of staff can definitely help. At precisely the same time, there isn't any fixed collection of dimensions of Human Development. Each customer will receive a non-plagiarized paper with timely shipping. New Questions About Human Development Research Paper Topics Don't attempt to select a complicated idea if you aren't able to articulate the content clearly when written. When you begin looking for a dissertation topic, 1 thing to keep in mind is that this paper is likely to take an extensive period of time to write, so you will want to search for a subject you know that you are passionate about. Gain a comprehension of how research is utilized to answer questions regarding human development, and learn to make decisions utilizing the logic of the scientific method. If you intend to not just describe a particula r problem or maybe to convey an idea to your readers but expect to market your private theory and get the approval of a respected scientific community, it's almost always vital to draw up a corresponding proposal where it's possible to describe particular moments and present certain ideas. The Foolproof Human Development Research Paper Topics Strategy It is difficult to imagine how that may have happened if I'd stayed at school. Students who need to assist families and kids can look at a Bachelor of Science in Human Development Studies program. Eighty children were selected to take part in the study. The large part of the psychology sub-fields are absolutely broad, making researching on it extremely problematic. Certainly, it is one of the most interesting branches of science out there. The researcher concludes an age difference was demonstrated. It's a science that's based on human behavior, mental wellbeing and human psyche. As far as it is possible to see, there are lots of topics for your research paper on Givenchy and you should choose which one is going to be best for you. The main reason is a bigger Healthy life index. With that, a new medical care challenge has been made and we have to have a life span strategy. To get started researching local problems, head straight to local newspapers and internet sources. For a thorough discussion of the four forms of validity, the threats related to each kind of validity, and extra validity issues see Cook and Campbell (1979). Clearly, there are several troubles with internal validity. For example, you could tackle any pre sent issue in psychology like equality in mental wellbeing. Researching any issue about government or laws can get overwhelming because of the intricacy of the issues and even on account of the wording of some laws. Type of Human Development Research Paper Topics There are two main reasons why we're not able to make cause and effect statements. As a consequence the absence of such understanding can cause the incorrect up-bringing of a kid. To reiterate, it's inappropriate in correlational research to create statements concerning cause and effect. Bad diet and lifestyle for instance, taking alcohol when pregnant can lead to brain damage and hence low IQ in a kid. Specifically, it is all about the rules of citation, for instance, an APA research paper format. Experienced term paper writers are affordable and they are able to help you acquire the information which you require for your topic. If you still feel you need help, even if you've managed to decide on a topic, you may a lways employ a custom writing service to assist you produce a fabulous research paper of which you'll be proud and will guarantee you a nice mark. Most professors do not demand a title page, so it's unnecessary unless they specify otherwise. Carry on reading to learn several topics that you are able to consider. Second, a third variable could possibly be involved of which we aren't aware. Feel free to check through our sample topics to find inspiration! This video guides you through the procedure for picking a topic.